What is Cannabidiol (CBD)?
What exactly is cannabidiol (CBD) and more importantly, what does it do? Those questions and more are at the heart of this comprehensive guide to one of the most fascinating and important compounds of the cannabis plant. Cannabis plants are chemical powerhouses that produce more than 400 different compounds. Not all of those compounds are unique to marijuana, of course, and appear in many other species of plants. That’s why marijuana can smell like pine trees or taste like fresh lemons. But of those 400 compounds, more than 60 of them are totally specific to the plant genus Cannabis. Scientists call these special compounds "cannabinoids." However, not all cannabinoids are created equal. One of them, cannabidiol, or CBD, holds the key to the wide variety of medicinal and therapeutic effects marijuana offers. The more we learn about CBD, the more it seems poised to revolutionize medicine as we know it.
Cannabidiol is Not Psychoactive
One of the most crucially important qualities of CBD is its lack of psycho-activity. In layperson’s terms, this means that cannabidiol won’t get you high. Unlike THC, the cannabinoid with the legendary power of producing euphoric sensations, Cannabidiol is inert. So when taken on its own, users experience none of the sensations of being stoned. And this is the single most important property of the cannabinoid from the medical—and legal—perspective.
Cannabidiol is Legal Almost Everywhere
Because CBD doesn’t get you high, products that contain only this cannabinoid can skirt the legal ban on marijuana.
Technically speaking, its THC—the cannabinoid that gets you high—which is illicit. When you take a drug test, the aim is to detect THC in your body, not "cannabis." If you possessed weed without any THC in it, technically you wouldn’t be in violation of the law. Because "weed" without THC has a different name: hemp. And the rules governing hemp are quite different from the restrictions placed on cannabis.
In fact, every state that has yet to legalize marijuana for medical use has some kind of law allowing people to obtain and use CBD-only (or low-THC) products for medical or therapeutic purposes. And in most cases, that means obtaining Cannabidiol from hemp, rather than cannabis flowers. In places with legal medical marijuana programs, CBD products are widely available and easy to find.
Cannabidiol Can Come From Hemp or Marijuana Plants
There are two main sources of CBD: hemp plants and marijuana. Where a given product comes from depends on the legal status of marijuana in a particular state.
If medical marijuana is illegal in a given state, THC levels determine whether a CBD product is illicit or not. In most places, the limit is extremely low. We’re talking under 1 percent THC, with some states opting for a cap as low as 0.2 percent (PA). In this case, the only source that would work is hemp, and CBD products will, therefore, be hemp-derived.
In other places, limits can be higher. Delaware, for example, allows CBD oil to contain up to 5 percent THC. But that’s still not enough to get anyone very high.
Sourcing and legality questions aside, the general consensus has it that CBD derived from marijuana is both more potent and more effective.
Many attribute this phenomenon to the "entourage effect," or the theory that one cannabinoid can do its job better when it works together with its companion cannabinoids. Extracting Cannabidiol from cannabis flowers helps keep these other cannabinoids intact, which is why people prefer it over hemp-derived products.
In other words, the source matters. And the buds of the cannabis plant have a richer and wider complement of cannabinoids compared to hemp leaves. So while we’re on the topic, here’s a quick rundown of the best CBD-only and CBD-dominant strains of cannabis out there.
How Does Cannabidiol Interact With The Body?
All of the 60-plus cannabinoids unique to the plant genus Cannabis interact with our bodies thanks to a network of neurons called the endocannabinoid system.
The endocannabinoid system runs throughout your body. And it’s loaded with receptors that bind to the cannabinoids you introduce to your bloodstream when you consume weed.
And it’s the chemical interactions of those bonds that create a wide and largely unknown series of responses in your body.
Without distorting the science too much, you could say that human beings are "hard-wired" for weed. The endocannabinoid system runs deep and touches all of the major systems of the body. And that’s why weed can do so many things for us, from altering and regulating moods to stimulating appetites and reducing pain.
And even though cannabidiol has no toxicity for humans—meaning, it doesn’t make you intoxicated (i.e. high)—it is highly reactive with the endocannabinoid system.
To put things as simply as possible, CBD makes things happen. When it binds to the endocannabinoid system’s receptors, it stimulates all kinds of changes in the body. Most of those changes are incredibly beneficial, and researchers keep uncovering real and potential medical uses for them. We won’t bog you down with the technical minutiae of each of those changes. Instead, here’s a quick overview of the major studies and most promising findings about the medical importance of CBD.
Here’s What CBD Can Really Do—And The Research Backing It Up
There’s no better way to gain an appreciation of just what cannabidiol can do than taking a look at the exciting research behind it. This overview lists the major medical benefits of CBD, then explains the key studies backing them up.
CBD Can Stop Epileptic Seizures
One of the most important CBD studies ever published was a path-breaking study into the efficacy of using CBD as a treatment for epilepsy. In 2012, researchers with the British Epilepsy Association published a paper called "Cannabidiol exerts anticonvulsant effects in animal models of the temporal lobe and partial seizures." Their conclusion? "The evidence strongly supports CBD as a therapeutic candidate for a diverse range of human epilepsies."
CBD Can Treat Serious Neurological Diseases Like Alzheimer’s, Multiple Sclerosis, and Parkinson’s
Researchers are still trying to figure out the exact mechanisms behind neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s. We know it has to do with a protein pathway, and that’s exactly the pathway this 2006 study investigates. Taking a look down to the molecular level, researchers discovered that CBD can actually protect nerve cells from degenerative diseases. Scientists call this CBD’s "neuroprotective effect," and it’s one of the most promising aspects of the cannabinoid.
CBD Can Relieve Pain
Medical cannabis is quickly becoming the go-to alternative to dangerous and addictive prescription painkillers, like the opioids that are causing an epidemic of overdose deaths in the United States. A lot of weed’s pain-killing power stems from its psychoactive cannabinoid, THC. But cannabidiol is also a potent pain reliever. 2015 saw the most important study to uncover the pain-relieving effects of CBD. In that study, researchers compared cannabidiol to morphine. To their surprise, CBD worked well in combination with morphine and counteracted the latter’s risky side effects. This means cannabidiol can help treat acute pain conditions, along with more long-term benefits.
CBD Can Fight Cancer
It sounds too good to be true. But indeed, pre-clinical trials have shown that cannabidiol has a powerful anti-tumor effect. The most important study to reveal these powerful tumor-inhibiting effects came out in 2015. In fact, this study looked at a range of non-psychoactive cannabinoids, including, of course, cannabidiol. In a landmark for medical cannabis research, this study concluded that "CBD slows the progression of many types of cancer, including breast, lung, prostate and colon cancer." How that works is pretty incredible. Cannabidiol actually makes it harder for cancer cells to grow. In some cases, this causes an increase in cancer cell death. No wonder stories abound about "miracle" CBD cures that shrink tumors.
CBD Can Reduce Inflammation
Cannabis is widely-valued as a treatment for inflammation. Credit goes to both THC and CBD in that regard, but cannabidiol has some special anti-inflammatory properties of its own. Specifically, cannabidiol binds with the endocannabinoid system to produce a response that reduces nerve inflammation. This is another of its "neuroprotective" qualities and a major reason why CBD is such an effective treatment for neurological diseases.
CBD Can Treat Mood Disorders
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) affects nearly 8 percent of all American’s during their lifetime. Women are twice as likely as men to suffer from it. Finding an affordable, safe, and reliable treatment for PTSD would profoundly impact the lives of millions of Americans every year. To that end, a pathbreaking 2013 study found that cannabidiol improved people’s abilities to forget their traumatic memories. These findings are incredibly important and could be relevant for figuring out how cannabidiol can treat other anxiety and stress disorders.
What Can CBD Do For Recreational Users?
The topic of treating stress and anxiety sets us up perfectly to pivot to the importance of cannabidiol for recreational marijuana users. One of the most awesome things about CBD for the recreational crowd is its ability to act as a kind of counterweight to THC. The passive, sustaining Yin to the active, creative Yang of THC if you will.
CBD Can Produce A Smoother, More Balanced High
When recreational users report a negative experience with weed, the issue almost always has to do with feelings of paranoia and anxiety. No doubt, any serious recreational user has been there. Today’s weed can be incredibly potent in terms of THC. And that’s not even mentioning concentrates.
High doses of THC can and do trigger negative mood alterations. And some people are just more sensitive to THC than others. For both people who accidentally got "too high," and those hyper-sensitive to THC, cannabidiol can help pump the breaks by inhibiting some of the toxicity of THC. This is a really unique and little-understood mechanism covered under the entourage effect. But if you take a close look at dispensary products, you’ll see plenty of strains, edibles, and concentrates that include a healthy dose of CBD in addition to high quantities of THC.
The reason for this is that cannabidiol works like an antidote to THC. It counters some of the stronger, stress-inducing effects of THC, leading to a smoother, more balanced high. Hence, 1:1 strains or other products with a balanced blend of THC and CBD are super-popular among recreational cannabis consumers.
The Future Of Cannabidiol: The Future Of Healing?
That’s the rundown of what cannabidiol is, what it can do for you and the most popular ways to get your hands on it. As you can see, the future holds in store some exciting things for CBD, thanks to its seemingly bottomless promise as an effective and safe medicine. Capable of fighting back against the most serious diseases, while also gentle enough to be a part of a daily health regimen, cannabidiol is truly one of the most remarkable compounds in the natural world.
For this reason, cannabidiol (CBD) is driving innovation in the cannabis industry. Who would have guessed that the part of the plant that doesn’t get you high become such a major player in today’s cannabis revolution?
How Does CBD Work?
Each of the 60-plus cannabinoids unique to the plant interact with our bodies via a network of neurons called the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS is a group of endogenous cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) located in the brain and throughout the central and peripheral nervous system. CBD interacts with these receptors, creating a wide series of responses in the body, including signaling the body to wake up and naturally strengthen the immune system and elicits responses that help bring about balance and homeostasis, the ability to maintain and adjust internal conditions needed for survival and optimal health. It stimulates and affects sleep, pain, mood, digestion, stress, and is anti-inflammatory.
Researchers continue to uncover new medically-indicated uses for this natural oil. Recently, EPIDIOLEX®, became the 1st and only FDA-approved prescription CBD for epilepsy in the United States.
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